Chronology of World, British and American Literature.
John Greenleaf Whittier. American. 1863. Poetry. “Barbara Frietchie.” Fictional encounter between Barbara Frietchie, 96, and Stonewall Jackson. Displayed the Union flag. He orders that she not be harmed.
Abraham Lincoln. American. 1863. Emancipation Proclamation. Freed the slaves in the South, but not in the
Abraham Lincoln. American. 1863. Speech. “
Leo Tolstoy. Russian. 1863. Novel. The Cossacks. Tried of life in civilized society, hero attempts to find happiness among wild, free Cossacks of the
Dostoevsky. Russian. 1864. Story. Notes from the Underground. Complex psychological portrait of the narrator; polemic against positivist philosophy, rationality of man and the possibility of social betterment through material progress. Narrator embodies the irrationality he insists is the essence of man. Starting point of Dostoevsky’s literary maturity.