Luis de Camoes. Portuguese. 1572. Epic poetry. The Lusiad. Exploits of Vasco de Gama in “discovery of India.” Mythological machinery.
Raphael Holinshed. British. 1577. History. Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland. Source of much material in Macbeth, Lear and Cymbeline.
Edmund Spenser. British. 1579. Poetry. The Shepeardes Calender. 12 eclogues, one for each month of the year. Shepherds’ loves and laments.
Sir Philip Sidney. British. 1580/83. Poetry. An Apologie for Poetry. Answer to attack on poetry by the Puritans. Defines as poetry all imaginative writing.
Sir Philip Sidney. British. 1580/84. Poetry. Astrophel and Stella. Sonnet sequence. “Stella” = Penelope Devereux. Astrophel (“star lover”). Greek pun on Sidney’s name.